The Differences Between These Opioids

What are tramadol and codeine?

Tramadol and codeine are each opiates. Codeine is created from the poppy plant, identical to morphine, heroin, and opium. Tramadol is chemically just like codeine, however it’s synthesized from precursor molecules in a lab. Many docs prefer it as a result of it has a decrease potential for dependancy than different opioids, although that does not imply it is non-addictive.

Opiates work as a result of the central nervous system has three essential opioid receptors within the nerve cells that, when coupled with pure opioids your physique makes, govern ache sensation, reward, features of gastrointestinal operate, features of respiratory operate, and features of urogenital operate. These receptors are named after Greek letters: Mu receptors, Delta receptors, and Kappa receptors. They sit on the membrane of nerve cells and activate when an opioid — whether or not naturally occurring within the physique or launched within the type of a drug — suits into the molecule like a key in a lock.

Opiate medicine mimic the pure opioids produced by the physique. Their molecules match into the identical receptors and activate them. Codeine, tramadol, morphine, and all different poppy derivatives goal and activate principally the Mu receptors, that means they’re “Mu receptor agonists.”

These receptors and the naturally occurring (endogenous) opioids they pair with are answerable for the physique’s personal efforts to deaden ache. Because of this, flooding the Mu receptors with pharmaceutical opioids like codeine, tramadol, and others can enhance the painkilling (analgesic) properties of that a part of the central nervous system.

Unfortunately, as a result of the endogenous opioid system additionally governs reward pathways, pharmaceutical opioids are extremely addictive. Endorphins are the principle endogenous opioids your nervous system secretes in response to intercourse, a scrumptious meal, and different types of pleasure. Because opiate medicine activate the identical Mu receptors endorphins do, euphoria and a profound sense of well-being are potential unwanted side effects of all of the opiate medicine available on the market. Patients can change into addicted bodily and mentally as each their our bodies and minds start to crave that state of bliss.

Tramadol and codeine are a lot much less potent than different opiates like morphine, heroin, and its artificial counterpart Fentanyl. Because of this, short-term use of tramadol and codeine for cough or reasonable ache signs comes with a comparatively low danger of dependancy or withdrawal.

The endogenous opioid system, as talked about earlier than, helps govern the muscle reflex that expands and contracts your ribcage to breathe out and in in response to carbon dioxide ranges within the blood. Because opiate medicine suppress this respiratory response, small doses of medication like codeine may also help suppress coughing and scale back the ache of a sore throat in all kinds of illnesses and circumstances through which coughing and throat ache are signs. However, although researchers perceive the cough reflex is related to the endogenous opioid system, they have not found out the precise mechanism by which codeine suppresses coughs. They do not know why, as an illustration, it would not work for some continual coughs.

Dosage, Side Effects & Pregnancy Safety

What are the uncomfortable side effects of Xiaflex?


Corporal Rupture (Penile Fracture) or Other Serious Penile Injury within the Treatment of Peyronie’s Disease

Corporal rupture (penile fracture) was reported as an antagonistic response in 5 of 1044 (0.5%) Xiaflex-treated sufferers in medical research. In different Xiaflex-treated sufferers (9 of 1044; 0.9%), a mixture of penile ecchymoses or hematoma, sudden penile detumescence, and/or a penile “popping” sound or sensation was reported, and in these instances, a analysis of corporal rupture can’t be excluded. Severe penile hematoma was additionally reported as an antagonistic response in 39 of 1044 (3.7%) Xiaflex-treated sufferers.

Signs or signs which will mirror severe penile damage needs to be promptly evaluated to evaluate for corporal rupture or extreme penile hematoma which can require surgical intervention.

Because of the dangers of corporal rupture or different severe penile damage, Xiaflex is obtainable for the remedy of Peyronie’s illness solely by means of a restricted program beneath a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) known as the Xiaflex REMS Program.

Xiaflex could trigger severe uncomfortable side effects, together with:

elevated likelihood of bleeding. Bleeding or bruising on the injection web site can occur in individuals who obtain Xiaflex. Talk to your healthcare supplier in case you have an issue together with your blood clotting. Xiaflex might not be best for you.

What is a very powerful info I ought to learn about Xiaflex for the remedy of Dupuytren’s contracture?

Xiaflex may cause severe uncomfortable side effects, together with:

  • Tendon rupture or ligament harm. Receiving an injection of Xiaflex could trigger harm to a tendon or ligament in your hand and trigger it to interrupt or weaken. This may require surgical procedure to repair the broken tendon or ligament. Call your healthcare supplier instantly in case you have bother bending your injected finger (in the direction of the wrist) after the swelling goes down or you’ve issues utilizing your handled hand after your follow-up go to.
  • Nerve damage or different severe damage of the hand. Call your healthcare supplier instantly if you happen to get numbness, tingling, elevated ache, or tears within the pores and skin (laceration) in your handled finger or hand after your injection or after your follow-up go to.
  • Hypersensitivity reactions, together with anaphylaxis. Severe allergic reactions can occur in individuals who obtain Xiaflex, as a result of it incorporates overseas proteins.

Call your healthcare supplier instantly in case you have any of those signs of an allergic response after an injection of Xiaflex:

The most typical uncomfortable side effects with Xiaflex for the remedy of Dupuytren’s contracture embrace:

  • swelling of the injection web site or the hand
  • bruising or bleeding on the injection web site
  • ache or tenderness of the injection web site or the hand
  • swelling of the lymph nodes (glands) within the elbow or armpit (axilla)
  • itching
  • breaks within the pores and skin
  • redness or heat of the pores and skin
  • ache within the armpit

What is a very powerful info I ought to learn about Xiaflex for the remedy of Peyronie’s illness?

Xiaflex may cause severe uncomfortable side effects, together with:

  • Penile fracture (corporal rupture) or different severe damage to the penis. Receiving an injection of Xiaflex could trigger harm to the tubes in your penis known as the corpora. After remedy with Xiaflex, certainly one of these tubes could break throughout an erection. This known as a corporal rupture or penile fracture. This may require surgical procedure to repair the broken space. Damage to your penis won’t get higher after a corporal rupture.
    • After remedy with Xiaflex, blood vessels in your penis may break, inflicting blood to gather beneath the pores and skin (hematoma). This may require a process to empty the blood from beneath the pores and skin.
      • Symptoms of corporal rupture or different severe damage to your penis could embrace:
        • a popping sound or sensation in an erect penis
        • sudden lack of the power to keep up an erection
        • ache in your penis
        • purple bruising and swelling of your penis
        • issue urinating or blood within the urine

Call your healthcare supplier instantly in case you have any of the signs of corporal rupture or severe damage to the penis listed above.

Do not have intercourse or some other sexual exercise between the primary and second injections of a remedy cycle.

Do not have intercourse or have some other sexual exercise for not less than four weeks after the second injection of a remedy cycle with Xiaflex and after any ache and swelling has gone away.

Xiaflex for the remedy of Peyronie’s illness is barely obtainable by means of a restricted program known as the Xiaflex Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Program. For extra details about the Xiaflex REMS Program go to or name 1-877-942-3539.

  • Hypersensitivity reactions, together with anaphylaxis. Severe allergic reactions can occur in individuals who obtain Xiaflex, as a result of it incorporates overseas proteins.

Call your healthcare supplier instantly in case you have any of those signs of an allergic response after an injection of Xiaflex:

The most typical uncomfortable side effects with Xiaflex for the remedy of Peyronie’s illness embrace:

  • a small assortment of blood beneath the pores and skin on the injection web site (hematoma)
  • swelling on the injection web site or alongside your penis
  • ache or tenderness on the injection web site, alongside your penis and above your penis
  • penis bruising
  • itching of your penis or scrotum (genitals)
  • painful erection
  • erection issues (erectile dysfunction)
  • adjustments within the coloration of the pores and skin of your penis
  • blisters on the injection web site
  • ache with intercourse
  • a lump on the injection web site (nodule)

Tell your healthcare supplier in case you have any aspect impact that bothers you or doesn’t go away.

These usually are not the entire attainable uncomfortable side effects with Xiaflex. For extra info, ask your healthcare supplier or pharmacist.

Call your physician for medical recommendation about uncomfortable side effects. You could report uncomfortable side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Greenhouse Gases Bad for Your Brain

News Picture: Greenhouse Gases Bad for Your Brain

THURSDAY, April 23, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Rising ranges of greenhouse gases could do greater than drive local weather change, they could ultimately impair your considering, researchers warn.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) ranges are usually increased indoors than open air. As CO2 concentrations improve within the environment, there shall be increased ranges of the fuel indoors, presumably triggering vital declines in folks’s decision-making abilities and strategic considering, the authors of the brand new research defined.

By the top of the century, folks could possibly be uncovered to indoor CO2 ranges as much as 1,400 components per million, which is greater than 3 times immediately’s outside ranges and nicely above what people have ever skilled, the researchers famous.

“It’s superb how excessive CO2 ranges get in enclosed areas,” stated lead creator Kris Karnauskas, an affiliate professor on the University of Colorado at Boulder.

“It impacts all people — from little children packed into school rooms to scientists, enterprise folks and choice makers to common of us of their homes and flats,” Karnauskas stated in a college information launch.

According to review co-author Shelly Miller, a professor within the college’s School of Engineering, “Building air flow usually modulates CO2 ranges in buildings, however there are conditions when there are too many individuals and never sufficient recent air to dilute the CO2.”

CO2 ranges additionally rise in poorly ventilated areas over longer durations of time, equivalent to in a single day whereas sleeping in bedrooms, she stated.

And that is the place the hazard to your mind begins.

Exposure to excessive CO2 ranges within the air causes CO2 ranges in your blood to rise, decreasing the quantity of oxygen that reaches your mind. This can improve sleepiness and nervousness, and impair considering, the researchers defined.

Many folks have had the expertise of spending too lengthy in a stuffy indoor location and beginning to really feel drowsy or boring, the authors famous.

There could also be methods to adapt to increased indoor CO2 ranges, however one of the simplest ways to forestall them from reaching dangerous ranges is to cut back fossil gas emissions, the workforce reported within the paper printed on-line April 20 within the journal GeoHealth.

— Robert Preidt

Copyright © 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.


The abbreviated time period ADHD denotes the situation generally often known as:
See Answer


SOURCE: University of Colorado at Boulder, information launch, April 20, 2020

Lasix (furosemide) Side Effects, Warnings, and Drug Interactions

What medicine work together with Lasix (furosemide)?

Lasix could enhance the ototoxic potential of
aminoglycoside antibiotics, particularly within the presence of impaired renal
perform. Except in life-threatening conditions, keep away from this mixture.

Lasix shouldn’t be used concomitantly with ethacrynic
acid due to the opportunity of ototoxicity. Patients receiving excessive doses
of salicylates concomitantly with Lasix, as in rheumatic illness, could
expertise salicylate toxicity at decrease doses due to aggressive renal
excretory websites.

There is a threat of ototoxic results if cisplatin and
Lasix are given concomitantly. In addition, nephrotoxicity of nephrotoxic medicine
akin to cisplatin could also be enhanced if Lasix will not be given in decrease doses and with
constructive fluid steadiness when used to realize compelled diuresis throughout cisplatin

Lasix tends to antagonize the skeletal muscle
enjoyable impact of tubocurarine and should potentiate the motion of

Lithium usually shouldn’t be given with diuretics
as a result of they scale back lithium’s renal clearance and add a excessive threat of lithium

Lasix mixed with angiotensin changing enzyme
inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers could result in extreme hypotension
and deterioration in renal perform, together with renal failure. An interruption
or discount within the dosage of Lasix, angiotensin changing enzyme inhibitors,
or angiotensin receptor blockers could also be mandatory.

Potentiation happens with ganglionic or peripheral
adrenergic blocking medicine.

Lasix could lower arterial responsiveness to
norepinephrine. However, norepinephrine should be used successfully.

Simultaneous administration of sucralfate and Lasix
tablets could scale back the natriuretic and antihypertensive results of Lasix.
Patients receiving each medicine must be noticed carefully to find out if the
desired diuretic and/or antihypertensive impact of Lasix is achieved. The
consumption of Lasix and sucralfate must be separated by at the very least two hours.

In remoted circumstances, intravenous administration of Lasix
inside 24 hours of taking chloral hydrate could result in flushing, sweating
assaults, restlessness, nausea, enhance in blood stress, and tachycardia. Use
of Lasix concomitantly with chloral hydrate is due to this fact not beneficial.

Phenytoin interferes straight with renal motion of Lasix.
There is proof that remedy with phenytoin results in lower intestinal
absorption of Lasix, and consequently to decrease peak serum furosemide

Methotrexate and different medicine that, like Lasix, endure
vital renal tubular secretion could scale back the impact of Lasix. Conversely,
Lasix could lower renal elimination of different medicine that endure tubular
secretion. High-dose remedy of each Lasix and these different medicine could outcome
in elevated serum ranges of those medicine and should potentiate their toxicity as
effectively because the toxicity of Lasix.

Lasix can enhance the chance of cephalosporin-induced
nephrotoxicity even within the setting of minor or transient renal impairment.

Concomitant use of cyclosporine and Lasix is related
with elevated threat of gouty arthritis secondary to Lasix-induced hyperurecemia
and cyclosporine impairment of renal urate excretion.

High doses ( > 80 mg) of furosemide could inhibit the
binding of thyroid hormones to provider proteins and lead to transient
enhance in free thyroid hormones, adopted by an general lower in complete thyroid
hormone ranges.

One examine in six topics demonstrated that the
mixture of furosemide and acetylsalicylic acid briefly decreased
creatinine clearance in sufferers with continual renal insufficiency. There are
case stories of sufferers who developed elevated BUN, serum creatinine and
serum potassium ranges, and weight achieve when furosemide was utilized in conjunction
with NSAIDs.

Literature stories point out that coadministration of
indomethacin could scale back the natriuretic and antihypertensive results of Lasix
(furosemide) in some sufferers by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
Indomethacin may additionally have an effect on plasma renin ranges, aldosterone excretion, and
renin profile analysis. Patients receiving each indomethacin and Lasix ought to
be noticed carefully to find out if the specified diuretic and/or
antihypertensive impact of Lasix is achieved.

Technology Restores Hand Sensitivity to Young Quadraplegic

News Picture: Back in Touch: Technology Restores Hand Sensitivity to Young QuadraplegicBy Alan Mozes
HealthDay Reporter

THURSDAY, April 23, 2020 (HealthDay News) — A way of contact has been restored to a younger man who misplaced it after being left paralyzed from the elbows down following a swimming accident almost a decade in the past.

How? By tapping into nearly imperceptible neural alerts that may stay even after spinal wire harm, and amplifying these alerts to the purpose the place a misplaced sense of contact may be regained.

The course of was achieved by means of an revolutionary use of brain-computer interface (BCI) know-how that goals to present paralyzed sufferers some measure of physique management.

BCI “is a know-how that data mind exercise [and then] sends it to a pc to detect particular ‘ideas,'” defined research chief Patrick Ganzer. He’s a principal neurotechnology analysis scientist with Battelle, a nonprofit science and know-how firm in Columbus, Ohio.

The pc then codecs these ideas into directions, Ganzer stated. Those directions then get despatched again to the affected person, both on to the affected person’s muscle mass or to a prosthetic system that triggers an motion, similar to hand motion.

Ocean diving left him with spinal wire harm

That’s precisely what Columbus resident Ian Burkhart signed up for again in 2014, on the age of 22. Just three years earlier, whereas a freshmen in school, he had damaged his neck whereas swimming within the ocean.

“I dove right into a wave that pushed me right into a sandbar,” Burkhart recalled. “So primarily what I used to be diving into was just some toes deep.”

The prognosis: “I’m a C-5 quadriplegic with an entire spinal wire harm. I can transfer my shoulders, my biceps, and my palms round somewhat bit,” he stated. “But I haven’t got any management over my wrist or palms, or most of my stomach muscle mass, or something from the waist down. I can drive my wheelchair with a joystick, however I can not grip on that joystick. I can use an iPad by transferring my entire arm round and utilizing my knuckles, however I can not faucet with a finger.”

In 2014 Burkhart started working with Ganzer and his colleagues. First, he underwent invasive surgical procedure to have a small pc chip implanted within the motor cortex area of his mind. “That method they’ll simply insert an enormous plug into the highest of my cranium, after which plug me proper into the pc,” Burkhart stated.

And after slipping a muscle stimulation sleeve (outfitted with a system of electrodes) over his arm, the workforce was capable of efficiently set off hand motion. “And that was superior,” Burkhart stated.

But there was nonetheless an issue, Ganzer defined.

“Unfortunately, the participant’s hand just isn’t solely utterly paralyzed, however it is usually nearly utterly missing sensation,” he famous. “This a significant downside, because the sense of contact is essential for acceptable motion management. The participant has bother detecting basic contact, and primarily can’t even really feel small objects. Because of this lack of sensation, at instances the participant’s hand additionally feels overseas.”

Getting artistic to revive vibrations

“Originally the research was solely designed for me to regain motion management,” stated Burkhart. “But we rapidly realized that in order for you full management it is advisable really feel one thing, as a result of I used to be counting on my imaginative and prescient to know if my hand was on an object, or how exhausting I may squeeze one thing. So after they had the concept to create a bi-directional system that might assist me really feel one thing, I used to be actually excited.”

To do this, stated Burkhart, the analysis workforce needed to get artistic, fashioning a motor system that may ship the type of vibrations felt with cellphones and online game controllers. “And then they put that round my bicep, the place I do have sensation,” he stated.

The end result? “Whenever I transfer my hand and contact one thing, the motor vibrates round my arm and I can really feel it,” Burkhart stated.

“His capacity to detect contact was nearly utterly restored,” Ganzer stated. “When he makes use of the system in actual time, his actions pace up, and he is ready to manipulate and switch objects sooner.”

Claudia Angeli is director of the Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center. “The innovation offered on this work is that they’re decoding each motor and sensory alerts,” stated Angeli, who wasn’t concerned with the research.

“By permitting enhancement or restoration of each,” she added, “the BCI gives a extra reasonable management of hand perform.”

More work to be executed to make system transportable

But Angeli cautioned that the work to this point is complicated, invasive and “very preliminary.”

Ganzer acknowledged as a lot. For one factor, the equipment is way too cumbersome to be transportable, although he stated his workforce “is presently working with our collaborators to develop a take-home BCI system. This would enable for the BCI for use throughout actions of day by day residing exterior of the laboratory.”

That goal is on pause for the second, whereas the workforce searches for added funding. But Burkhart — now 28 and set to graduate from school this spring with a level in monetary planning — is on board for the lengthy haul.

“We have to get this into the palms of different individuals like myself,” he stated. “But there are a variety of parts that go into making this occur. Being ready to make use of this exterior the lab would require a variety of miniaturization. We want a smaller plug linked to my head, smaller recording tools that is transportable, like an iPad or one thing that I can put in my e-book bag and hold on my chair, somewhat than a desk full of kit like it’s proper now.


The abbreviated time period ADHD denotes the situation generally often called:
See Answer


SOURCES: Ian Burkhart, BCI affected person, Columbus, Ohio; Patrick Ganzer, Ph.D., principal neurotechnology analysis scientist, Battelle, Columbus, Ohio; Claudia Angeli, Ph.D. assistant professor, division of bioengineering, School of Engineering, and director, Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, University of Louisville; April 23, 2020, Cell

Drug Facts, Side Effects, Dosage

What is liothyronine sodium, and the way does it work (mechanism of motion)?

Liothyronine sodium is an artificial (man-made) model of one of many two hormones made by the thyroid gland, triiodothyronine. It is used for treating people who’re hypothyroid (don’t produce sufficient thyroid hormones). Thyroid hormones enhance the metabolism (exercise) of all cells within the physique. In the fetus, new child toddler and youngster, thyroid hormones promote progress and growth of tissues. In adults, thyroid hormones assist to take care of the operate of the mind, the usage of meals by the physique, and physique temperature. The FDA authorized liothyronine in May 1956.

What model names can be found for liothyronine sodium?

Cytomel, Triostat

Is liothyronine sodium out there as a generic drug?


Do I want a prescription for liothyronine sodium?


What are the makes use of for liothyronine sodium?

Liothyronine sodium (Cytomel, Triostat) is a drug prescribed to deal with hypothyroidism, and to deal with and stop varied sorts of euthyroid goiters.

What are the uncomfortable side effects of liothyronine sodium?

Liothyronine remedy usually is well-tolerated. If signs happen, they often happen as a result of there are poisonous (too excessive) ranges of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism).

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism embrace:

  • chest ache,
  • elevated coronary heart price,
  • extreme sweating,
  • warmth intolerance,
  • nervousness,
  • headache,
  • tremor,
  • insomnia,
  • diarrhea,
  • vomiting,
  • weight reduction,
  • fever, and,
  • hardly ever, cardiac arrest.

Women additionally might expertise irregular menstrual cycles.

Since thyroid hormone impacts coronary heart price and metabolism, the impression of therapy of thyroid hormone on the management of ailments akin to atrial fibrillation, diabetes and excessive levels of cholesterol all the time must be thought-about.


Where is the thyroid gland positioned?
See Answer

What is the dosage for liothyronine sodium?

The standard beginning dose of liothyronine for treating hypothyroidism is 5 to 25 mcg per day. The dose then is adjusted primarily based on the affected person’s response and the blood ranges of thyroid hormone. Optimal liothyronine doses are totally different for every affected person and differ relying on the affected person’s age, weight, signs, blood ranges of thyroid hormone and underlying circumstances akin to coronary heart illness. Individuals who’re hypothyroid would require thyroid hormone for all times.

Which medicine or dietary supplements work together with liothyronine sodium?

Thyroid hormone impacts the physique’s dealing with of many medicine. Generally, hypothyroidism (decreased focus of thyroid hormone) reduces the results of the physique on medicine (metabolism of medication) whereas hyperthyroidism (elevated focus of thyroid hormone) will increase the results. Therefore, people who’re hypothyroid will eradicate medicine extra slowly, and people with hyperthyroidism will eradicate medicine quicker in contrast with people with regular ranges of thyroid hormone.

This precept additionally applies to the metabolism of medication that should be metabolized (modified) by the physique into their lively varieties as a way to have an impact. Therefore, liothyronine and different thyroid hormones might change the motion of many medicine. The elimination of theophylline (Theo-Dur) and comparable medicine will increase because the dose of thyroid hormone will increase. Individuals who’re hypothyroid have slower theophylline elimination. Therefore, when the focus of thyroid hormone is returned to regular with liothyronine, the elimination of theophylline is elevated. This reduces the focus of theophylline within the physique and may scale back the effectiveness of theophylline. Patients who’re handled for thyroid circumstances and who’re taking theophylline ought to have their blood focus of theophylline monitored, and doses of theophylline must be adjusted as mandatory.

Cholestyramine (Questran) binds liothyronine and different thyroid in hormones within the gut, decreasing the absorption and ranges of liothyronine. Thyroid hormones shouldn’t be administered for four to five hours after administering cholestyramine.

The administration of liothyronine will increase the motion of the blood thinning drug, warfarin (Coumadin). Warfarin acts by decreasing the focus of things within the physique which are mandatory for blood to clot. The focus of those clotting components within the physique is set by the physique’s price of metabolism. In principle, by growing the physique’s metabolism (elimination) of those clotting components, thyroid hormones scale back the physique’s potential to clot and due to this fact improve the results of warfarin. Since this could result in extreme bleeding, the dose of warfarin might should be decreased.

Is liothyronine sodium secure to take if I’m pregnant or breastfeeding?

Thyroid hormones don’t simply cross the placenta and, due to this fact, are secure for pregnant ladies to take.

Very small quantities of thyroid hormone could also be excreted in breast milk. This will not be a major problem for breastfed infants.

What else ought to I find out about liothyronine sodium?

What preparations of liothyronine sodium can be found?

Tablets: 5, 25, and 50 mcg. Injection: 10 mcg/ml

How ought to I maintain liothyronine sodium saved?

Tablets must be saved at room temperature 20 C – 25 C (68 F – 77 F) and the injectable preparation between 2 C – eight C (36 F – 46 F )


Hyperthyroidism Symptoms and Treatment
See Slideshow

Medically Reviewed on 7/31/2019


FDA Prescribing Information

Another HIV Hazard: Higher Risk for COPD

News Picture: Another HIV Hazard: Higher Risk for COPD

THURSDAY, Feb. 20, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Adults with HIV have greater charges of persistent obstructive pulmonary illness (COPD) and are identified with the lung illness years sooner than these with out HIV, a brand new examine finds.

Smoking could also be a significant motive why, researchers counsel.

“As folks with HIV reside longer, it is very important perceive how frequent different diseases are to make sure that prevention, screening and therapy methods may be developed,” stated Tony Antoniou, a scientist on the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael’s Hospital, in Toronto.

“While different components might contribute to the event of COPD in folks with HIV, our work highlights the significance of attempting to assist our sufferers with HIV give up smoking to stop COPD within the first place and stop additional lung injury in people who find themselves already identified with COPD,” Antoniou stated in a hospital information launch.

For the examine, the researchers analyzed COPD charges amongst adults aged 35 and older within the province of Ontario, Canada, between 1996 and 2015. More than 40% of Canadians with HIV reside in Ontario.

Compared to these with out the AIDS-causing virus, folks with HIV had a 34% greater charge of COPD and had been identified with the lung illness about 12 years earlier — common age 50 versus 62, the investigators discovered.

Among girls, the speed of COPD was 54% greater in these with HIV than in these with out it, based on the report.

“COPD is a illness that typically worsens with time, can worsen an individual’s high quality of life and is strongly linked to smoking,” Antoniou stated.

COPD impacts greater than 380 million folks worldwide and is projected to turn into the fourth main reason for demise worldwide by 2030. It is strongly related to smoking and doubtlessly preventable, the researchers identified.

The next charge of smoking amongst folks with HIV appeared to clarify their elevated danger of COPD, the examine authors famous.

The examine was revealed on-line Feb. 18 within the journal CMAJ Open.

— Robert Preidt

Copyright © 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.


What is HIV?
See Answer


SOURCE: St. Michael’s Hospital, information launch, Feb. 18, 2020

Raking Your Leaves to the Edge of Your Yard an Invitation to Ticks

Latest Infectious Disease News

News Picture: Raking Your Leaves to the Edge of Your Yard an Invitation to Ticks

SUNDAY, March 22, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Where you place leaves raked out of your yard final fall may have an effect on your loved ones’s danger of bites from ticks that transmit Lyme disease-causing micro organism, a brand new examine suggests.

In areas the place Lyme-causing ticks are prevalent, houses are sometimes close to forested areas, and ticks thrive in these habitats between garden and woods.

Raking or blowing leaves out of your garden simply out to the forest edge may pose a danger by creating a great habitat for blacklegged (deer) ticks, in accordance with the examine revealed March 18 within the Journal of Medical Entomology.

“Our examine confirmed that the frequent fall apply of blowing or raking leaves faraway from lawns and landscaping to the speedy garden/woodland edges may end up in a three-fold enhance in blacklegged tick numbers in these areas the next spring,” mentioned examine co-author Robert Jordan. He’s a analysis scientist within the Monmouth County Division of Mosquito Control in New Jersey.

For the examine, his crew created take a look at plots on three residential properties within the fall of 2017 and 2018.

“The factor householders want to remember is that accumulations of leaves and different plant particles present supreme host-seeking and survival circumstances for immature black-legged ticks,” Jordan mentioned in a journal information launch.

Researchers mentioned householders ought to use curbside leaf pickup (if accessible); compost their leaves; or put leaves deeper into the woods or farther from high-use areas of their property.

“On properties with appreciable leaf fall, the best choice could be full removing of leaves from areas most continuously used — comparable to lawns, out of doors seating areas, and in and round play units,” Jordan mentioned.

“If this isn’t doable or sensible, leaf piles must be positioned in areas least continuously used. Where neither of those choices is feasible, or the place leaf fall is minimal, mulching in place could also be an excellent choice, since this encourages speedy decomposition of leaves, which can scale back habitat suitability for ticks,” he added.

— Robert Preidt

Copyright © 2020 HealthDay. All rights reserved.


Bacterial Infections 101: Types, Symptoms, and Treatments
See Slideshow


SOURCE: Journal of Medical Entomology, information launch, March 18, 2020

Hyperkalemia Drug Dosage & Side Effects

What is Veltassa (patiromer), and what’s it used for?

Veltassa is indicated for the remedy of hyperkalemia, or excessive ranges of potassium. High ranges of potassium normally are attributable to kidney or adrenal gland malfunctions and should trigger

Veltassa works within the colon by binding with potassium out of your meals and stopping your physique from absorbing it.

  • Veltassa shouldn’t be used as an emergency remedy for life-threatening hyperkalemia due to its delayed onset of motion
  • Veltassa is contraindicated in sufferers with a historical past of a hypersensitivity response to Veltassa or any of its elements
  • Because Veltassa just isn’t absorbed into the bloodstream, docs take into account it low-risk for pregnant ladies and nursing moms.

What are the uncomfortable side effects of Veltassa (patiromer)?

Worsening of Gastrointestinal Motility

Avoid use of Veltassa in sufferers with extreme constipation, bowel obstruction or impaction, together with irregular post-operative bowel motility problems, as a result of Veltassa could also be ineffective and should worsen gastrointestinal situations.

Patients with a historical past of bowel obstruction or main gastrointestinal surgical procedure, extreme gastrointestinal problems, or swallowing problems weren’t included within the scientific research.


Veltassa binds to magnesium within the colon, which might result in hypomagnesemia. In scientific research, hypomagnesemia was reported as an opposed response in 5.3% of sufferers handled with Veltassa. Monitor serum magnesium.

Consider magnesium supplementation in sufferers who develop low serum magnesium ranges on Veltassa.

During the scientific research, probably the most generally reported opposed reactions resulting in discontinuation of Veltassa had been gastrointestinal opposed reactions (2.7%), together with

Mild to average hypersensitivity reactions had been reported in 0.3% of sufferers handled with Veltassa in scientific trials. Reactions have included edema of the lips.

What is the dosage for Veltassa (patiromer)?

Administer Veltassa at the least Three hours earlier than or Three hours after different oral drugs

Do not warmth Veltassa (e.g., microwave) or add to heated meals or liquids. Do not take Veltassa in its dry type.

  • Measure 1/Three cup of water.
  • Pour half of the water right into a glass, then add Veltassa and stir.
  • Add the remaining half of the water and stir completely.
  • The powder won’t dissolve and the combination will look cloudy.
  • Add extra water to the combination as wanted for desired consistency.
  • Drink the combination instantly.
  • If powder stays within the glass after consuming, add extra water, stir and drink instantly. Repeat as wanted to make sure your complete dose is run.

The really useful beginning dose of Veltassa is 8.four grams patiromer as soon as every day. Monitor serum potassium and alter the dose of Veltassa based mostly on the serum potassium stage and the specified goal vary.

The dose could also be elevated or decreased, as obligatory, to achieve the specified serum potassium focus, as much as a most dose of 25.2 grams as soon as every day. The dose will be up-titrated based mostly on serum potassium stage at 1-week or longer intervals, in increments of 8.four grams.


The solely objective of the kidneys is to filter blood.
See Answer

What medication work together with Veltassa (patiromer)?

In scientific research, Veltassa decreased systemic publicity of some coadministered oral drugs. Binding of Veltassa to different oral drugs might trigger decreased gastrointestinal absorption and lack of efficacy when taken near the time Veltassa is run.

Administer different oral drugs at the least Three hours earlier than or Three hours after Veltassa.

Is Veltassa (patiromer) protected to take whereas pregnant or breastfeeding?

Veltassa just isn’t absorbed systemically following oral administration and maternal use just isn’t anticipated to end in fetal threat. Veltassa just isn’t absorbed systemically by the mom, so breastfeeding just isn’t anticipated to end in threat to the toddler.

Medically Reviewed on 3/18/2020


Most article content material courtesy of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration

More Hot Flashes Could Mean Higher Odds for Heart Trouble

News Picture: More Hot Flashes Could Mean Higher Odds for Heart TroubleBy Kayla McKiski
HealthDay Reporter

TUESDAY, Sept. 24, 2019 (HealthDay News) — Women, should you’re bothered by frequent scorching flashes, it might be greater than a mere annoyance.

New analysis affords proof that frequent or persistent scorching flashes are linked to greater odds of coronary heart assault and stroke. The discovering stems from a 20-year research of about 3,300 girls throughout menopause.

Of these girls, 231 had a coronary heart assault, stroke or coronary heart failure.

Women who had frequent scorching flashes had twice the chance of coronary heart bother in the course of the research, researchers discovered. And those that had persistent scorching flashes had an 80% greater danger over 20 years.

“The [heart events] weren’t defined by issues like blood stress, diabetes, weight problems, train or smoking, that are our typical suspects,” stated lead writer Rebecca Thurston, director of the Women’s Biobehavioral Health Program on the University of Pittsburgh.

Much extra stays to be discovered, Thurston stated.

Next up: Understanding the underlying mechanisms that hyperlink scorching flashes to coronary heart illness danger. Researchers additionally wish to discover out whether or not treating scorching flashes has any influence on girls’s coronary heart well being as they age.

Heart illness is the main reason behind loss of life for American girls, based on the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

About 75% of girls report experiencing scorching flashes (intense heat, bouts of sweating) as their month-to-month durations develop into rare and at last cease, based on the North American Menopause Society.

“We do not know the precise reason behind scorching flashes, but it surely pertains to part of the mind that regulates temperature,” stated Dr. Stephanie Faubion, the society’s medical director. “The vary of temperatures the place girls really feel snug is narrowed in comparison with what it was earlier than scorching flashes began. Think of it like a damaged thermostat.”

Not all girls who expertise scorching flashes will develop coronary heart illness, nor are scorching flashes a reason behind coronary heart illness, consultants stated.

But menopausal girls are nonetheless at a higher danger of different preventable persistent ailments like diabetes and hypertension.

“Women ought to perceive their particular person dangers by understanding their numbers [blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose] and by taking motion to take care of well being,” Faubion stated.

That contains getting acceptable screenings for breast, colon and cervical most cancers and a bone density scan. Faubion additionally recommends common train, a nutritious diet, sustaining an acceptable weight, getting sufficient sleep, not smoking and listening to good psychological well being.

Thurston supplied an identical prescription. “It is all too frequent that girls put their well being on the again burner in favor of the wants of others, corresponding to their kids or relations,” she stated. “Now is the time to prioritize one’s personal well being.”

The research was to be introduced Tuesday at a gathering of the North American Menopause Society, in Chicago. Research introduced at conferences is usually thought of preliminary till revealed in a peer-reviewed journal.

Copyright © 2019 HealthDay. All rights reserved.


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SOURCES: Rebecca Thurston, Ph.D., director, Women’s Biobehavioral Health Program, and professor of psychiatry, medical and translational science, epidemiology and psychology, University of Pittsburgh; Stephanie Faubion, M.D., M.B.A., medical director, North American Menopause Society, and director, Center for Women’s Health, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.